flag is a horizontal tricolor of deep
saffron (kesari) at
the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal
proportion. The saffron color indicates the strength and courage of the
country. The white middle band, indicates peace and truth with Dharma
Chakra. The last band is green in colour shows the fertility , growth
and auspiciousness of the land.
The ratio of width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the
centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel which represents the
chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of
the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. The chakra intends to show that
there is life in movement and death in stagnation. Its diameter
approximates to the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The
design of the national flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of
India on 22 July 1947.
On 26th January 2002, the flag code was changed. After 52 years, the
citizens of India are free to fly the Indian flag over their homes,
offices and factories on any day. Now Indians can proudly display the
national flag any where and any time. There are some rules and
regulations upon how to fly the flag, based on the 26 January 2002
legislation. These include the following:
1. The National Flag may be hoisted in
institutions (schools, colleges, sports camps, scout camps, etc.) to
inspire respect for the Flag. An oath of allegiance has been included
in the flag hoisting in schools.
2. A member of public, a private organization or
educational institution may hoist/display the National Flag on all days
and occasions, ceremonial or otherwise consistent with the dignity and
honour of the National Flag.
3. Section 2 of the new code accepts the right of
private citizens to fly the flag on their premises.
1. The flag cannot be used for communal gains,
clothes. As far as possible, it should be flown from sunrise to sunset,
irrespective of the weather.
2. The flag cannot be intentionally allowed to
ground or the floor or trail in water. It cannot be draped over the
hood, top, and sides or back of vehicles, trains, boats or aircraft.
3. No other flag or bunting can be placed higher
flag. Also, no object, including flowers or garlands or emblems can be
placed on or above the flag. The tricolour cannot be used as a festoon,
rosette or bunting.
national emblem of India is an adaptation of the Buddhist Lion Capital
of Asoka at Sarnath, near Banaras in the north Indian state of Uttar
Pradesh. The Lion Capital was erected in the third century BC by
Emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where the Buddha first proclaimed his
gospel of peace and emancipation. The national emblem is thus symbolic
of contemporary India's reaffirmation of its ancient commitment to
world peace and goodwill.
It has four lions, resting on
a circular abacus. The fourth lion is on the rear and hence hidden from
view. The emblem symbolizes power, courage and confidence. The abacus
is girded by four smaller animals - guardians of the four directions:
the lion of the north, the elephant of the east, the horse of the south
and the bull of the west. The abacus rests on a nelumbo nucifera in
full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life. Usually inscribed
below the abacus in Devanagari script is the motto Satyameva Jayate
("Truth Alone Triumphs"). This is a quote from Mundaka Upanishad, the
concluding part of the sacred Hindu Vedas. The emblem forms a part of
the official letterhead of the Government of India, and appears on all
Indian currency as well. It also sometimes functions as the national
emblem of India in many places and appears prominently on the
diplomatic and national Passport of the Republic of India.
tiger is the symbol of India's wealth of wildlife. The magnificent
tiger, Panthera tigris (Linnaeus), is a striped animal. It has a thick
yellow coat of fur with dark stripes. The combination of grace,
strength, agility and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of
place as the national animal of India. Out of eight races of the
species known, the Indian race, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found
throughout the country except in the north-western region and also in
the neighbouring countries, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh.
Peacock, Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), the national bird of
India. It is symbolic of qualities like beauty, grace, pride and
mysticism. Peacocok is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped
crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender
neck. The male of the species is more colourful than the female, with a
glistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green train of
around 200 elongated feathers it is able to expand its tail erect like
fan as ostentatious display. The female is brownish, slightly smaller
than the male, and lacks the train. These birds do not sound as
beautiful as they look they have a harsh call. The elaborate courtship
dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a
beautiful sight. The peacock is widely found in the Indian
sub-continent from the south and east of the Indus river, Jammu and
Kashmir, east Assam, south Mizoram and the whole of the Indian
peninsula. Found wild in India (and also domesticated in villages) they
live in jungle lands near water. They were once bred for food but now
hunting of peacocks is banned in India. It is fully protected under the
Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
of India - Lotus
scientifically known as Nelumbo Nucifera is the National Flower of
India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art
and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of
Indian culture since time immemorial. The Lotus symbolises divinity,
fertility, wealth, knowledge and not to forget enlightenment. Lending
to its uniqueness, the flower grows in murky waters and rises on a long
stalk above the surface to bloom glorious. It is also a symbol of
triumph, since the lotus is rooted in the mud and can survive to
regerminate for thousands of years. It represents long life, honor, and
good fortune. Untouched by the impurity, lotus symbolises the purity of
heart and mind.
Mango is the national fruit. It has been cultivated in India since time
immemorial. There are over 100 varieties of mangos in India, in a range
of colors, sizes, and shapes. Common in the tropical part of the world,
mangos are savored for their sweet juice and bright colors. People in
India eat mangos ripe, or prepare them green as pickles or chutneys.
They are rich in vitamin A, C, and D.
Tree of India
The Banyan Tree
National Tree of India is The Banyan Tree. This huge tree towers over
its neighbors and has the widest reaching roots of all known trees,
easily covering several acres. It sends off new shoots from its roots,
so that one tree is really a tangle of branches, roots, and trunks. The
banyan tree regenerates and lives for an incredible length of
time--thus it is thought of as the immortal tree.
Its size and leafy shelter are valued in India as a place of rest and
reflection, not to mention protection from the hot sun! It is still the
focal point and gathering place for local councils and meetings. India
has a long history of honoring this tree; it figures prominently in
many of the oldest stories of the nation.
of India - Hockey
Sport of India - Hockey,
in which India has an impressive record with eight Olympic gold medals,
is officially the national sport. The Golden Era of hockey in India was
the period from 1928 - 1956 when India won 6 consecutive gold medals in
the Olympics. During the Golden Era, India played 24 Olympic matches,
won all 24, scored 178 goals (at an average of 7.43 goals per match)
and conceded only 7 goals. The two other gold medals for India came in
the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and the 1980 Moscow Olympics.